# 3D CAD AND ITS BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

**Advantages of Solid Modeling**- Automobiles body panels,
- Vehicles in marine,
- Consumers products,
- Structural members of aircrafts, and more.
- Curved Surfaces,
- Flat Plane Surfaces, and
- Fillet Surfaces.

Computer-aided design, or more commonly referred to as CAD, is used to generate virtual 2D or 3D models. 2D CAD designs are generally for technical engineering/architecture, while 3D models are typically either used for digital applications such as animation or for manufacturing/prototyping processes like 3D printing.

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Each of the above 3D CAD programs utilizes a different method for modeling.

Solid Modelling

Solid modeling is the most advanced method of geometric modeling in three dimensions. Solid modeling is the representation of the solid parts of the object on your computer. The typical geometric model is made up of wire frames that show the object in the form of wires. This wire frame structure can be two dimensional, two and half dimensional or three dimensional. Providing surface representation to the wire three dimensional views of geometric models makes the object appear solid on the computer screen and this is what is called as solid modeling.

Solid modeling is one of the most important applications of the CAD software and it has been becoming increasingly popular of late. The solid modeling CAD software helps the designer to see the designed object as if it were the real manufactured product. It can be seen from various directions and in various views. This helps the designer to be sure that the object looks exactly as they wanted it to be. It also gives additional vision to the designer as to what more changes can be done in the object.

Parametric Modelling: a type of solid modelling that uses 2D sketches to create features and objects that are modifiable with a feature history tree. Features are located and manipulated using geometric and functional relationships with other sketches, features and objects.

Direct Modelling: like parametric modelling, direct modeling uses sketches to create 3D features based on relationships with existing geometry. And the original sketch is absorbed into the feature and future edits are made on the resulting geometry.

**Surface Modelling **

Another type of modelling that relies on surfaces to generate geometry. Surface modelling can be both parametric (based on geometric and functional relationships) or free form. Free form surface modelling is used to manipulate the surface of the model similar to how someone would model with clay.A Surface modeling is a model with minimised ambiguous representation than the wire frame modeling but not as good as solid modeling. The construction of surface modeling is done with the use of geometric entities like surfaces and curves. Surface Modeling uses B – Splines and Beizer mathematical techniques for controlling curves.

**Areas of Surface Modeling:**

The important areas of surface modeling are:

**Different Types of Surface Modeling:**

In a CAD system, there are two different varieties of surfaces namely:

**Code-driven modelling**

This is a growing area of modelling where geometry is generated autonomously based on conditions set in place by the designer. This type of modelling is excellent for 3D printing as it can be used to generate 3D structures that can’t be manufactured through any other means.

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